Presence of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in a large population-based cohort from the Netherlands

Deep sequencing of the gut microbiomes of 1135 participants from a Dutch population-based cohort shows relations between the microbiome and 126 exogenous and intrinsic host factors, including 31 intrinsic factors, 12 diseases, 19 drug groups, 4 smoking categories, and 60 dietary factors. These factors collectively explain 18.7% of the variation seen in the interindividual distance of microbial composition. We could associate 110 factors to 125 species and observed that fecal chromogranin A (CgA), a protein secreted by enteroendocrine cells, was exclusively associated with 61 microbial species whose abundance collectively accounted for 53% of microbial composition. Low CgA concentrations were seen in individuals with a more diverse microbiome. These results are an important step toward a better understanding of environment-diet-microbe-host interactions

year of publication



  • Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases


  • van Zanten, A
  • Arends, S
  • Roozendaal, C
  • Limburg, PC
  • Maas, F
  • Trouw, LA
  • Toes, REM
  • Huizinga, TWJ
  • Bootsma, H
  • Brouwer, E

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